### Research Questions

I am primarily devoted in finding clues to:

*Why is the Universe computable?*- the extraordinary effectiveness of AIT techniques like Solomonoff induction is based on just one assumption: the Universe is computable by a universal Turing machine. Why so? Why do the Church-Turing thesis hold? What does that tell us of the nature of our physical laws, or of the scientific method? Why do simple programs give rise to complex behavior? Is comprehension by compression and uncomputability of universal automata two sides of the same coin? Is everything relative to a partial trace or course-graining? Is truth relational? The ubiquity of universality and the computational reducibility self-referential? Does a Markov blanket automatically give rise to a probability distribution of Bayesian beliefs and information geometry? Is a non-anthropocentrism viewpoint possible?*Is there a computational action?*- the action in Lagrangian in physics is fundamental to many core theories and look very similar to computational and algorithmic complexity - Are they? What roles do the computational resources play? What is the relation between computational, algorithmic complexity and thermodynamics? Can locality and causality be violated?

### Research Themes

Research themes evolve over time. My older interests are listed with ~~strikethrough~~. Some of my core interests are:

*Artificial General Intelligence*- universal artificial intelligence; recursive self-improvement; universal constructors;~~explainable neural networks~~; neuro-evolution; neuro-symbolic AI;~~cellular automata rule learning~~;~~algorithmic perturbation analysis~~;~~do-calculus~~; experimental algorithmic information theory;~~computational complexity phase change behavior~~; relations between expressibility-reachability-learnability-universality; description complexity …read more*Quantum Computation*-~~quantum Hamiltonian complexity~~;~~quantum learning theory~~; quantum complexity geometry; quantum information;~~quantum swarm intelligence~~; tensor networks; holographic quantum circuit complexity;~~Feynman checkerboard QFT~~…read more*Computational Applied Category Theory*- computational category theory; universal algebras; categorical intelligence*Bioinformatics*- in silico design space exploration for xenobiology; artificial life; synthetic biology; causal models of gene regulatory network; self-replicating RNA medicines*Swarm intelligence*-~~multi-agent collaboration~~;~~swarm robotics~~; emergence; coarse-graining- Others -
~~fractals~~;~~game theory~~;~~RtOS~~;~~computer vision~~;~~digital steganography~~

Here’s a visual that captures the most important topics:

### Mind Map

… of all things I live to keep myself updated about, and associated contributor to those ideas,…

The blue boxes and their 1-hop neighbours are my core interests.

I tried finding my core interests in the Domain of Science charts. I eventually figured that most of my core interests lie in the field of computer science. The interests within physics, mathematics, and biology reflect the topics in computer science. Here’s the result:

### Links to articles I love

The following articles had major influence on my research scoping. The research each influenced is denoted by the tags: QCA, QiBAM, QuASeR, QEAIT, QKSA, QKSA+, YAQQ, ARA. The bold ones are the major background works for each project.

#### Postdoc research

###### read in 2023

- Automated Gadget Discovery in Science YAQQ
- Discovering Quantum Circuit Components with Program Synthesis YAQQ
- Where are we heading with NISQ? QCA
- Quantum computation with machine-learning-controlled quantum stuff YAQQ
- What can we know about that which we cannot even imagine? ARA

###### read in 2022

- Maximal Algorithmic Caliber and Algorithmic Causal Network Inference: General Principles of Real-World General Intelligence? ARA
- Compositional Scientific Computing with Catlab and SemanticModels ARA
- Kolmogorov Complexity of Categories ARA
- Finding Structure in Science and Mathematics ARA
- Physics, Topology, Logic and Computation: A Rosetta Stone ARA
- The Physicalization of Metamathematics and Its Implications for the Foundations of Mathematics
**ARA** - Resource theory of quantum uncomplexity YAQQ

#### Ph.D. research

###### read in 2021

- A Complete Theory of Everything (will be subjective) ARA
- Space-Time Embedded Intelligence QKSA+
- Quantum speedup in the identification of cause-effect relations QKSA+
- Testing quantum theory with thought experiments QKSA+
- The Concept of the Ruliad QKSA,
**ARA** - Algorithmic Thermodynamics QKSA, ARA
- The Second Law of Quantum Complexity QKSA, YAQQ
- Thermodynamic costs of Turing machines QKSA, ARA

###### read in 2020

- The bitter truth about gate-based quantum algorithms in the NISQ era
**QCA** - The Universe is Lawless or “Pantôn chrêmatôn metron anthrôpon einai” ARA
- Eigenforms, Interfaces and Holographic Encoding - Toward an Evolutionary Account of Objects and Spacetime ARA
- Law without law: from observer states to physics via algorithmic information theory
**QKSA** - Universal Algorithmic Intelligence: A mathematical top->down approach
**QKSA** - Algorithmic Theories of Everything QKSA, ARA
- A Computer Scientist’s View of Life, the Universe, and Everything QKSA, ARA

###### read in 2019

- Ultimate Cognition à la Gödel QKSA, ARA
- A Gentle Introduction to Quantum Computing Algorithms with Applications to Universal Prediction QEAIT, QKSA
- Revisiting the simulation of quantum Turing machines by quantum circuits
**QEAIT** - Calculating Kolmogorov Complexity from the Output Frequency Distributions of Small Turing Machines
**QEAIT** - Formal Definitions of Unbounded Evolution and Innovation Reveal Universal Mechanisms for Open-Ended Evolution in Dynamical Systems QEAIT
- Evolving Turing Machines for Biosequence Recognition and Analysis QEAIT
- Life’s code script QEAIT

###### read in 2018

- Quantum-assisted quantum compiling QuASeR, QEAIT
- A Tutorial on Formulating and Using QUBO Models
**QuASeR** - The unconstrained binary quadratic programming problem: a survey QuASeR
- From the Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm to a Quantum Alternating Operator Ansatz QuASeR
- The Expressive Power of Parameterized Quantum Circuits QuASeR
- A Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm
**QuASeR** - BCG: The Next Decade in Quantum Computing and How to Play QCA, QuASeR
- Quantum Computing in the NISQ era and beyond QCA

#### M.Sc. research

###### read in 2017

- Quantum associative memory with improved distributed queries
**QiBAM** - Quantum Associative Memory QiBAM
- Quantum Pattern Matching QiBAM
- Is Quantum Search Practical? QiBAM
- Generalized Grover Search Algorithm for Arbitrary Initial Amplitude Distribution QiBAM
- Quantum Amplitude Amplification and Estimation QiBAM
- Tight bounds on quantum searching QiBAM
- A fast quantum mechanical algorithm for database search QiBAM
- Fast Quantum Search Algorithms in Protein Sequence Comparison - Quantum Biocomputing
**QiBAM**

###### read in 2016

- A heterogeneous quantum computer architecture
**QCA** - A blueprint for building a quantum computer QCA
- A New BSQDD Approach for Synthesis of Quantum Circuit QCA
- The Limits of Quantum Computers QCA
- Strengths and Weaknesses of Quantum Computing QCA

### Scientists with similar research interest

Some researchers I currently follow very closely for my research, as they have overlapping interests with me.

- Hector Zenil - Experimental algorithmic information theory; Block decomposition method
- Stephen Wolfram - Cellular automata types, Metamathematics
- Ben Goertzel - Artificial general intelligence; probabilistic logic networks
- Marcus Hutter - Universal artificial general intelligence; AIXI-tl
- Markus Müller - Quantum foundations using Solomonoff induction
- David Wolpert - Thermodynamics of Turing machines; No free lunch theorems
- Cristian S. Calude - Algorithmic information theory; quantum computing
- John Baez - Applied category theory
- Noson Yanofsky - Category theory
- Yoshihiro Maruyama - Applied category Theory

### Favourite formulae/hypotheses

List of formulae or hypotheses that I find most impactful

- Deutsch-Church-Turing principle
- Cantor’s Continuum hypothesis
- Curry-Howard-Lambek correspondence
- Mass-Energy-Information equivalence
- Area law of entanglement
- Choi-Jamiołkowski isomorphism
- Thermodynamic Kolmogorov complexity
- QKSA
- AIXI
- Solomonoff induction
- Mandelbrot set
- Barsley fern fractal
- Glynn Julia set

### Favourite scientists of all time

The 3 of my most favourite scientists: John von Neumann, John Archibald Wheeler, and Ray Solomonoff, in Salvador Dali art style (using the Android app Moment Cam).

### On the shoulder of giants

(Created Jul 23, 2019) (Updated Apr 10, 2022)

I have been deeply inspired by many *giants* in the scientific community. I hold them in the highest regard, for either their thoughts resonate well with mine or their propositions fuel my neural engines. While unification has been the holy grail for too long, I find clues lurking in the works of these great men.

- James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) Maxwell’s demon
- Georg Cantor (1845-1918) set theory
- Max Plank (1858-1947) Plank units
- Albert Einstein (1879-1955) general relativity
- Neils Bohr (1885-1962) atomic model; classical observers
- Louis de Bröglie (1892-1987) wave-particle duality
- Erwin Schrödinger (1887-1961) wavefunction; life; observer; Schrödinger equation; Schrödinger cat; quantum biology
- Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976) uncertainty principle; matrix mechanics
- Alfred Tarski (1901-1983) undefinability of truth
- John von Neumann (1903-1957) self-replicating machines; automata theory; stored program
- Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov (1903-1987) algorithmic complexity
- Alonso Church (1903-1995) lambda calculus; Church-Turing thesis
- Kurt Friedrich Gödel (1906-1978) incompleteness theorem
- John Archibald Wheeler (1911-2008) it from bit
- Alan Mathison Turing (1912-1954) Turing machine; Turing test
- Claude Elwood Shannon (1916-2001) information theory
- Richard Phillips Feynman (1918-1988) quantum computation; Feynman diagrams
- Raymond Smullyan (1919-2017) self-referential logic
- Benoit Mandelbrot (1924-2010) fractals
- Ray Solomonoff (1926-2009) algorithmic probability; universal prior
- Marvin Lee Minsky (1927-2016) artificial intelligence; perceptron; useless box
- Stephen William Hawkins (1942-2018) Hawkings radiation

…and among those who are still around

- Roger Penrose (1931-) Quantum mind; Penrose tilings
- Judea Pearl (1936-) causal model
- Leonard Susskind (1940-) uncomplexity; string theory; loop quantum gravity
- Charles Bennett (1943-) logical depth; pebbling game; quantum computation models
- Paul Vitányi (1944-) algorithmic complexity
- Gregory Chaitin (1947-) algorithmic complexity; omega number
- Gerard ‘t Hooft (1947-) cellular automata quantum mechanics
- Wojciech Zurek (1951-) algorithmic information theory; thermodynamics of information; quantum darwinism
- Edward Witten (1951-) M-theory
- Cristian S. Calude (1952-) algorithmic information theory; quantum computing
- David Deutsch (1953-) Deutsch-Church-Turing principle; gate-model quantum computing; constructor theory
- Karl J. Friston (1959-) free energy principle
- Seth Lloyd (1960-) quantum computational limits
- David Wolpert (1961-) thermodynamics of Turing machines; no free lunch theorems
- John Baez (1961-) category theory
- Hans Briegel (1962-) projective simulation; quantum reinforcement learning; measurement based quantum computing
- Jürgen Schmidhuber (1963-) low complexity art; Gödel machines
- Ben Goertzel (1966-) artificial general intelligence; probabilistic logic networks
- Harry Buhrman (1966-) algorithmic information theory; quantum computing; computational biology
- Marcus Hutter (1967-) universal artificial general intelligence; AIXI-tl
- Scott Aaronson quantum complexity theory
- Ken Thompson - Regular expressions; Unix; B
- Eray Özkural artificial general intelligence
- Alyssa Adams evolution; algorithmic complexity
- Paola Zizzi
- Vlatko Vedral
- Robert Hoehndorf
- Paul Davies
- Sara Walker - algorithmic origins of life
- Max Tegmark
- Sean Carroll
- Kristinn R. Thórisson
- Christopher A. Fields
- Stefan Wolf
- Chiara Marletto constructor theory
- Juan Felipe Carrasquilla Álvarez neural network based quantum state tomography
- Shaukat Ali
- Giulio Chiribella
- Robert Spekkens
- Gemma De las Cuevas
- Tor Lattimore
- Laurent Orseau
- Shane Legg
- Jens Eisert resource theory of uncomplexity
- Ronald de Wolf
- Scott Aaronson
- Christof Adami
- Mario Krenn
- Roger Melko
- Christopher A. Fuchs QBism
- Lucas Lamata quantum reinforcement learning
- Renato Renner quantum thought experiments
- Ilya Nemenman
- Bernhard Schölkopf
- Vedran Dunjko quantum reinforcement learning
- Bob Coecke applied category theory; categorical quantum mechanics
- Hector Zenil experimental algorithmic information theory; Block decomposition method
- Markus Müller quantum foundations using Solomonoff induction
- Camilo Miguel Signorelli
- Noson Yanofsky applied category theory
- Yoshihiro Maruyama applied category Theory
- Oron Shagrir
- Mark Sprevak
- Jack Copeland
- Ross King
- Vijay Balasubramanian
- Susan Schneider
- Klaas Landsman
- Karim Thebault
- Dustin Lazarovici

… the list keeps growing as the horizon of my knowledge widens.

### Blogs/Sites to follow

#### Researchers

- Jürgen Schmidhuber - artificial general intelligence
- Marcus Hutter - artificial general intelligence
- Eliezer Yudkowsky - artificial general intelligence
- Hector Zenil - algorithmic information theory
- Evan Patterson - category theory
- Bartosz Milewski - category theory
- Scott Aaronson - quantum complexity
- Chris Adami

#### Organizations

- DeepMind - artificial general intelligence
- OpenAI - artificial general intelligence
- LessWrong - artificial general intelligence
- Machine Intelligence Research Institute - artificial general intelligence
- xAI - artificial general intelligence
- OpenNARS - artificial general intelligence
- OpenCog - artificial general intelligence
- Wolfram Institute - complexity sciences
- Santa Fe Institute - complexity sciences
- Topos Institute - category theory
- nLab - category theory
- Centre for Applied Compositionality - category theory
- QuTech - quantum technologies
- FQXi - physics
- Future of Humanity Institute - multidisciplinary research
- Institute of Semantic Information Sciences and Technology - philosophy of information

### Courses I recommend

- What is Computation? From Turing Machines to Black Holes and Neurons
- Understanding Artificial Intelligence through Algorithmic Information Theory
- Algorithmic Information Dynamics: A Computational Approach to Causality and Living Systems From Networks to Cells
- Quantum Machine Learning
- General Theory of General Intelligence
- Boltzmann Law: Physics to Computing